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Tillage and Cropping Systems Effect on Weed Communities and on Soil Bulk Density

Mehmood-ul Hassan, Muhammad Azim Malik, Muhammad Ansar, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Irfan Aziz, Awais Ali

Abstract


To assess the effect of different tillage and cropping systems on weeds densities under rainfed conditions during the study years 2013-2015 a field experiment was conducted at University Research Farm Koont Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Tillage treatments which were performed include; T1= 3 cultivations/control (Drill sowing), T2= Mold board+ 2 cultivations (Drill sowing), T3= Chisel + 2 cultivations (Bed planting), and T4= Minimum tillage + Glyphosate (Drill sowing) and cropping system which were performed include CS1= Wheat – Fallow - Wheat – Fallow/control, CS2  =  Wheat +  Brassica - Fallow – Wheat  +  Brassica - Fallow, CS3 = Wheat + Chickpea-  Fallow - Wheat + Chickpea- Fallow, CS4= Wheat- Cluster bean (Green manuring) - Wheat- Cluster bean (Green manuring). During both the years interactive effect of T2 with CS2 after 60 days revealed that densities of Euphoriba helioscopia, Fumaria indica, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus indica reduced by 56.38 %, 60.92 %, 72.65 % and 75.64 % respectively as compared to the interaction between T1 with CS1. Similar trends were also observed at maturity stage of crops. Interaction between T2 (Mold board+ 2 cultivations) and CS2 (Wheat + Brassica - Fallow - Wheat + Brassica – Fallow) showed the lowest bulk densities of soil as compared to the interaction between T1 (3 cultivations/control) and CS1 (Wheat - Fallow- Wheat – Fallow) at all stages of crops. This experiment reflected that tillage with mould board plough and intercropping of wheat with brassica and chickpea can retard weeds densities and can improve soil bulk densities. 


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